Analysis of Effects of Sugar Tax

Running Head: ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF SUGAR TAX 1

ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF SUGAR TAX 4

Analysis of Effects of Sugar Tax

Student’s Name

Institutional affiliation

Analysis of Effects of Sugar Tax

In the short run, a tax on sugar would have an increase in the price of sugar and a subsequent decrease in the quantity of sugar demanded. the price of the sugar shall increase from P1 to P2 whereas the quantity demanded shall shift from Q1 to Q2. The burden of the new tax shall be greatly borne by the society and mostly, the low class community shall be greatly affected. The low class community is affected because the sugar tax is a regressive tax and it takes a higher amount of money from low income earners. Briggs (2016) states that, sugary drinks often impose high external costs to the society which are reflected in the national health service. Thus, the social cost of the sugar tax shall be higher than the individual cost of sugar. As sugar is a good that has a high social cost, the graph below illustrates the impact of the sugar tax. At Q1 and P1, we have a free market price. However, at Q2, social marginal benefit (SMB) is equivalent to social marginal cost (SMC). Thus, the efficient level is at Q2.

The incidence of a tax is the final person who bears the financial burden of the tax whereas the impact of a tax is on the first person who pays it. In the long run, the impact of the sugar tax is on the manufacturer of sugar and sugary beverages. The duty is on the consumer of the sugar and sugary products, as this duty shall be added to the sugar and the price of sugar and sugary products shall increase. The sugar industry may be crippled as the profits made by the, manufacturer will decrease, wages will decrease and thus, the industry shall fall short of both labor and capital. With the decrease of income and profits, the purchasing power of individuals shall decrease and thus, the demand for other goods shall equally decrease. As compared to the short term consequence of increase in price and decrease in quantity, the long run consequences have quite adverse impacts. The general economy of the country shall decrease and poverty levels will increase. Therefore, the long term consequence of sugar tax is more critical than the short term consequence. As illustrated by the graph below, the consumer will pay higher taxes than the manufacturer due to incidence of the sugar tax.

Businesses do not support that sugar tax be the legal obligation of the consumer. This is because it will negatively affect their business. The sugar tax has a direct short term impact of increased prices. Most sugary products are perceived as luxury foods. According to Bødker, Pisinger, Toft & Jørgensen (2015), when consumers are given the legal obligation to pay the sugar tax, they shall shy away from purchasing sugary products due to increased price. In turn there shall be low demand for the commodity. With low demand for commodities, there shall be a decrease in the supply as most commodities have no market. Low profits are experienced by the business men and in turn, it may lead to closure of their businesses as their expenses shall be greater than their profits. Many employees will shift from businesses that solely rely on the sale of sugar as salaries and wages shall not only be delayed but they shall also decrease. As illustrated by the graph below, a tax of $t per liter of sugary beverage causes a decrease in consumption of sugary beverages as the final impact is felt by customers.

The increase in price of sugary drinks and beverages shall cause an increase in demand for the sugar free beverages. This is because, consumers shall opt for consuming sugar free beverages which are cheaper. In this theory, I am making the assumption that consumers shall still desire to quench their desire for beverages as they love beverages. As illustrated by the graph below, a decrease in demand for sugary beverages has an increase in demand for sugar free beverages whereas the quantity of sugar free beverages supplies increases and the supply of sugary beverages decreases causing fall of the sugar beverages industry.

References

Bødker, M., Pisinger, C., Toft, U., & Jørgensen, T. (2015). The rise and fall of the

world’s first fat tax. Health policy, 119(6), 737-742.

Briggs, A. (2016). Sugar tax could sweeten a market failure: Britain has announced a tax

on sugary drinks. Countries should go further and target foods that have large carbon footprints, says Adam Briggs. Nature, 531(7596), 551-552.

Balanced Scorecard

Like Dashboard Instruments, We Need Several Indicators of Strategy Success:

  • Financial
  • Customer
  • Employee / Learning and Growth
  • Internal Business Process

Balanced Score Card Features

Emphasizes what is important

Focuses on Business Drivers

Stresses Cause & Effect Relationships

Unites the Company

Uses Leading & Lagging Indicators

Implements Business Strategy

Uses metrics for Targets & Performance Evaluation

Financial Perspective

Link to Strategy

Time Horizon: Short, Medium and Long

Can Include:

Cash Flow

Reported Earnings

Risk Management

Cost Control and Revenue Growth

Pricing: Discounts vs. Value / Convenience

Financial Perspective

Find drivers for revenues, costs, cash flows & net income

Can tie to an incentive system

Can use any type of incentive

Problem: valuable, but focuses on the past rather than the future – it is a lagging indicator.

Leading Indicators

In order to predict financial results the BSC uses 3 leading indicators. These are:

  • The Customer Perspective
  • The Employee / Learning and Growth Perspective
  • The Internal Business Process Perspective

Customer Perspective

  • Value to Customers
  • Customer Satisfaction is not enough.
  • Not all customers are keepers:
  • 80 / 20 “rule”
  • Retain Old vs. Attract new Customers
  • Growth, Market Share, Segmentation

More on Customer

  • Time
  • Convenience
  • Ease of Use
  • Quality
  • After Sale Service
  • Cost
  • Performance

The Box

Employee / Internal Business

  • Ease of tasks
  • Innovation
  • Productivity
  • Where must we be EXCELLENT?
  • Where can we be good enough?
  • The Operations Process
  • Customer Life Cycle

More Internal Processes

  • Cycle Time
  • Quality
  • Employee Training and Skills
  • Productivity
  • Customer Perspective

Innovation and Learning

  • Pace of Industry Change
  • Continuous Improvement
  • Percent of income from New Products
  • Dot Com Bomb
  • Think outside the Box vs. inside
  • Think Critically
  • LISTEN

Listen and Learn

  • No one of us is as smart as all of us.
  • Welcome diverse views and people.
  • Get honest feedback from present customers, potential customers, employees, suppliers, others
  • Use benchmarking
  • Get connected with industry information

Balance for the Score Card

  • Financial
  • Customer
  • Learning and Growth
  • Internal Business Processes

Balanced Scorecard

  • Most organizations devise good strategies
  • But the real problem is successful implementation of strategy
  • Experts will say a B strategy with A implementation easily beats an A strategy with B implementation
  • The BSC is the most successful method for dependable implementation of strategy
  • But success will only be achieved with careful and thorough attention to installation of BSC

Balanced Scorecard

  • Why is the BSC so effective in strategy implementation?
  • Because it involves every organization unit in the design and implementation of strategy
  • It does so by finding the right drivers of performance for each organization unit
  • Then it determines the right metrics for the right drivers
  • Next it selects the right target values for the right metrics
  • Finally it links everyday activities of each unit with the metrics representing the drivers of performance

Balanced Scorecard

  • Performance of each organization unit is regularly measured by comparing actual metrics with target metrics
  • Deviations from target metrics are early warnings to get strategy back on track
  • That requires correct metrics for the right drivers of performance

Balanced Scorecard

  • Making sure that metrics are right means that leading indicators are valid predictors of the lagging finance measure
  • So regular testing of the predictive power of leading indicators is required
  • So the BSC is effective, but only to the extent that it is kept tuned and accurate

Balanced Score Card Summary

  • Emphasizes what is important
  • Focuses on Business Drivers
  • Stresses Cause & Effect Relationships
  • Unites the Company
  • Uses Leading & Lagging Indicators
  • Implements Business Strategy
  • Uses valid metrics for Targets & Performance Evaluation

The Balanced Scorecard
for Successful Strategy Implementation

· Week 6 Balanced Scorecard Part I

https://umuc.webex.com/umuc/ldr.php?RCID=b9cc47ec59762e844f6affa7bac85e87 (copy in browser)

· Week 6 Balanced Scorecard Part I

Assignment

Updated

Task: Submit to complete this assignment

Top of Form

https://learn.umuc.edu/d2l/img/lp/pixel.gifDue October 21 at 11:59 PM

Bottom of Form

Required Reading:

http://www.netmba.com/accounting/mgmt/balanced-scorecard/

http://www.quickmba.com/accounting/mgmt/balanced-scorecard/

This Power Point presentation also explains the balanced scorecard

Read the lecture material “Required Information on Metrics” posted in this week’s module.

 Assignment (6%):  Part I. Create  Balanced Scorecard

 

1. Build a Balanced Scorecard for the unit of the organization for which you work, or have worked, or one with which you are personally familiar. Unless you are in senior management, focus on the unit with which you are most familiar rather than the organization as a whole. Identify the strategic objectives of the entire organization and the secondary objectives for the unit. Develop three specific objectives within each of the four perspectives for the unit. Each objective should have at least one quantified target metric associated with it.

It is essential to understand what metrics are. Be sure to study the lecture material on “More Information on metrics” In this assignment, the specific information needed to calculate each metric should be explained. For each of your recommended metrics, state the appropriate target value and the actions you believe  needs to be taken to achieve the target. The paper should be no more than 15 pages, including the reference list, and should be formatted in accordance with the APA guidelines as modified for the MBA program (http://info.umuc.edu/mba/public/MBA-apa.html). Please format your paper in Microsoft Word as a XXX.doc or XXX.rtf file, and place the paper in your assignment folder.

Metrics

Develop three specific objectives within each of the four perspectives for the unit. Each objective should have at least one quantified target metric associated with it. So your table should contain 4 perspectives, each with 3 specific objectives, and a target value of the metric for each objective. Although you will use information from the company to determine strategic objectives,  you would not reveal any protected data for which you are bound by a nondisclosure agreement.  The determination of targets and metrics to meet objectives should be your own work.

If you would like to see a sample table of metrics, here is one example:

Sample Table of Metrics for an Example Business Unit

Perspective Objective Metric Target Value
Financial Revenue Growth

 

Operating Profit Growth

 

Short-term Solvency

 

Long-term Solvency

Annual Rate of Growth

 

% EBIT/Sales

 

Current Ratio

 

Long-term Debt/Equity

> 6%

> 7%

> 2.0

< 30%

Customer Increase Number of Customers

 

Maintaining Transaction Size

 

Improve Customer Satisfaction

Annual rate of Customers Increase

 

Average Transaction Size

 

Median Score: Customer Survey

> 5%

 

> $600

> 90%

Internal Product Improvement

 

Ratio of New to Old Products

 

Maintain Market Share

% R&D Expense to Revenue

 

Ratio of New to Old Products

 

Market Share %

> 4%

 

> 8%

 

> 24%

Learning Employee Training

 

Employee Turnover

 

Employee Compensation

Annual Hours of Employee Training

 

Employee Turnover

 

Average Compensation

> 30,000

 

< 3%

> $38,000

 

 

 

Attachments

Balanced Score Card.ppt

(303.5 KB)

 

· Required Information on metrics

Web Page

Updated

Task: View this topic

· Recommended but not required Videos explaining the Balanced Scorecard

Web Page

Updated

Task: View this topic

· Week 6 Discussion: Assignment Part II

Discussion Topic

Updated

Task: Reply to this topic

Top of Form

https://learn.umuc.edu/d2l/img/lp/pixel.gifDue October 21 at 11:59 PM

Bottom of Form

Discussion Assignment:  Part II (2%).  Post Executive Summary of your  Balanced Scorecard in this Discussion area

By Friday night, create a separate main topic in the Week 6 Discussion, Balanced Scorecard, using your name in the title and post an Executive Summary in the discussion text.  Do not include any information in your Executive Summary that you  consider confidential because your Executive Summary will be visible to all classmates.. But you can include  information in your paper that you wish to keep confidential (but not any you are legally bound to protect) because your assignment folder is private. Critique at least two of your classmates’ Executive Summaries in this Week 6 Balanced Scorecard Discussion.  All postings must be completed by Sunday midnight.

· Supplemental Materials for Week 6 topics

{count} items shown.{count} items selected. All items selected. Clear Selection

· Reading (Recommended but not required)

Web Page

Updated

Task: View this topic

· Valuation, Capital Budgeting, and Value-Based Management

Link

https://umuc.webex.com/umuc/ldr.php?RCID=b9cc47ec59762e844f6affa7bac85e87

(copy in browser)

·

Week 6 Balanced Scorecard Part I

Assignment

Updated

Due October 21 at 11:59 PM

Required Reading:

http

://www.netmba.com/accounting/mgmt/balanced

scorecard/

http://www.quickmba.com/accounting/mgmt/balanced

scorecard/

This Power Point presentation also explains the

balanced scorecard

Read the lecture material “Required Information on Metrics” poste

d in this

week’s module.

Assignment (6%):

Part I. Create

Balanced Scorecard

1. Build a Balanced Scorecard for the unit of the organization for which you

work, or have worked, or one with which you are personally familiar. Unless

you are in senior management, focus on the unit with which you are most

familiar rather than the organi

zation as a whole. Identify the strategic objectives

of the entire organization and the secondary objectives for the unit. Develop

three specific objectives within each of the four perspectives for the unit. Each

objective should have at least one quantifi

ed target metric associated with it.

It is essential to understand what metrics are. Be sure to study the lecture

material on “More Information on metrics” In this assignment, the specific

information needed to calculate each metric should be explained. F

or each of

https://umuc.webex.com/umuc/ldr.php?RCID=b9cc47ec59762e844f6affa7bac85e87

(copy in browser)

Week 6 Balanced Scorecard Part I

Assignment

Updated

Due October 21 at 11:59 PM

Required Reading:

http://www.netmba.com/accounting/mgmt/balanced-scorecard/

http://www.quickmba.com/accounting/mgmt/balanced-scorecard/

This Power Point presentation also explains the balanced scorecard

Read the lecture material “Required Information on Metrics” posted in this

week’s module.

Assignment (6%): Part I. Create Balanced Scorecard

1. Build a Balanced Scorecard for the unit of the organization for which you

work, or have worked, or one with which you are personally familiar. Unless

you are in senior management, focus on the unit with which you are most

familiar rather than the organization as a whole. Identify the strategic objectives

of the entire organization and the secondary objectives for the unit. Develop

three specific objectives within each of the four perspectives for the unit. Each

objective should have at least one quantified target metric associated with it.

It is essential to understand what metrics are. Be sure to study the lecture

material on “More Information on metrics” In this assignment, the specific

information needed to calculate each metric should be explained. For each of

Required information on Metrics

Numbers are the language of business. Numbers are measurements of performance for companies, for business units, and for individuals. These performance measurements determine whether companies, business units, and individuals are succeeding or failing in reaching their objectives. If the measurements are favorable, then companies are succeeding, employees are earning increased compensation and greater job security, customers are pleased, suppliers are winning more orders, the local community is benefiting, and investors are earning good returns. However, if the measurements are unfavorable, then companies are not succeeding, employees are earning constant or reduced compensation and losing job security, customers are displeased, suppliers are winning fewer orders, the local community is being harmed, and investors are earning low or even negative returns. Therefore performance measurement numbers are of crucial importance. These performance measurement numbers are known as “metrics.”

It is very important to understand what a metric is. To be clear, a metric means a measurement. There are three kinds of measurements:

1. Nominal: a nominal scale assigns items to a category. For example, the category may be a simple “yes” or “no.” In the case of a family, a nominal scale assigns items to categories like grandfather, grandmother, father, mother, son or daughter. In the case of an automobile, categories could be small sedan, midsize sedan, large sedan, SUV, etc.

2. Ordinal: an ordinal scale identifies items in order of magnitude. For example, a customer survey might ask for ratings of service on a scale of 1 through 5, where 5 is best. That means a score of 4 is better than a score of 2. But it does not mean that a 4 is twice as good as a 2, or that a 4 is four times as good as a 1.

3. Cardinal: a cardinal scale is also known as a ratio scale. For example, the numbers 1, 2, 3, … represent a cardinal scale. For a ratio scale, 12 is four times 3, and two times 6.

So a metric must be either a nominal or ordinal or cardinal measurement. Anything else is not a metric.

ROE > 20% is a metric. “Increase Sales Revenue by 5%” is a metric.

“Survey Customers” is not a metric. Increase % customer satisfaction as measured by a survey is a metric

***************

For each metric each period there are:

(a) target values,

(b) actual values, and

(c) a methodology for obtaining the data and calculating the actual values.

You should include the target values and explain the methodology for obtaining the data and calculating the actual values each period. It would be helpful to provide illustrations or examples of the methodology for obtaining the data for target values and calculating the actual values each period.

Good descriptions of the use of metrics can be viewed at:

http://searchcrm.techtarget.com/definition/business-metric

 

Required information on Metrics

Numbers are the language of business. Numbers are measurements of performance for

companies, for business units, and for individuals. These performance measurements determine

whether companies, business units, and individuals are succeeding or failing in r

eaching their

objectives. If the measurements are favorable, then companies are succeeding, employees are

earning increased compensation and greater job security, customers are pleased, suppliers are

winning more orders, the local community is benefiting,

and investors are earning good returns.

However, if the measurements are unfavorable, then companies are not succeeding, employees

are earning constant or reduced compensation and losing job security, customers are displeased,

suppliers are winning fewer o

rders, the local community is being harmed, and investors are

earning low or even negative returns. Therefore performance measurement numbers are of

crucial importance. These performance measurement numbers are known as “metrics.”

It is very important to u

nderstand what a metric is. To be clear, a metric means a measurement.

There are three kinds of measurements:

1.

Nominal: a nominal scale assigns items to a category. For example, the category may be

a simple “yes” or “no.” In the case of a family, a nominal scale assigns items to categories

like grandfather, grandmother, father, mother, son or daughter. In the case

of an

automobile, categories could be small sedan, midsize sedan, large sedan, SUV, etc.

2.

Ordinal: an ordinal scale identifies items in order of magnitude. For example, a customer

survey might ask for ratings of service on a scale of 1 through 5, where 5 is

best. That

means a score of 4 is better than a score of 2. But it does not mean that a 4 is twice as

good as a 2, or that a 4 is four times as good as a 1.

3.

Cardinal: a cardinal scale is also known as a ratio scale. For example, the numbers 1, 2, 3,

… re

present a cardinal scale. For a ratio scale, 12 is four times 3, and two times 6.

So a metric must be either a nominal or ordinal or cardinal measurement. Anything else is not a

metric.

ROE > 20% is a metric. “Increase Sales Revenue by 5%” is a metric.

“Su

rvey Customers” is not a metric. Increase % customer satisfaction as measured by a survey is

a metric

***************

For each metric each period there are:

(a) target values,

(b) actual values, and

(c) a methodology for obtaining the data and calculating

the actual values.

Required information on Metrics

Numbers are the language of business. Numbers are measurements of performance for

companies, for business units, and for individuals. These performance measurements determine

whether companies, business units, and individuals are succeeding or failing in reaching their

objectives. If the measurements are favorable, then companies are succeeding, employees are

earning increased compensation and greater job security, customers are pleased, suppliers are

winning more orders, the local community is benefiting, and investors are earning good returns.

However, if the measurements are unfavorable, then companies are not succeeding, employees

are earning constant or reduced compensation and losing job security, customers are displeased,

suppliers are winning fewer orders, the local community is being harmed, and investors are

earning low or even negative returns. Therefore performance measurement numbers are of

crucial importance. These performance measurement numbers are known as “metrics.”

It is very important to understand what a metric is. To be clear, a metric means a measurement.

There are three kinds of measurements:

1. Nominal: a nominal scale assigns items to a category. For example, the category may be

a simple “yes” or “no.” In the case of a family, a nominal scale assigns items to categories

like grandfather, grandmother, father, mother, son or daughter. In the case of an

automobile, categories could be small sedan, midsize sedan, large sedan, SUV, etc.

2. Ordinal: an ordinal scale identifies items in order of magnitude. For example, a customer

survey might ask for ratings of service on a scale of 1 through 5, where 5 is best. That

means a score of 4 is better than a score of 2. But it does not mean that a 4 is twice as

good as a 2, or that a 4 is four times as good as a 1.

3. Cardinal: a cardinal scale is also known as a ratio scale. For example, the numbers 1, 2, 3,

… represent a cardinal scale. For a ratio scale, 12 is four times 3, and two times 6.

So a metric must be either a nominal or ordinal or cardinal measurement. Anything else is not a

metric.

ROE > 20% is a metric. “Increase Sales Revenue by 5%” is a metric.

“Survey Customers” is not a metric. Increase % customer satisfaction as measured by a survey is

a metric

***************

For each metric each period there are:

(a) target values,

(b) actual values, and

(c) a methodology for obtaining the data and calculating the actual values.

Required Resources Read/review the following resources for this activity:

· Textbook: Review all chapters (Weeks 1-7)

· Lesson: Week 1-7

· Minimum of 4 scholarly sources

Introduction There are several problems that every economy must contend with. The culmination of these problems is often a recession or an inflation, each of which requires an extensive policy prescription. A recession is technically defined as two consecutive periods of negative growth in real GDP. The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) which dates U.S. recessions defines recession as “a significant decline in economic spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally in real GDP, real income, employment, industrial production and wholesale-retail sales.” (NBER, 2008, para. 2). Inflation is measured by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) as an increase in the overall price in the economy. The inflation rate is the percentage change in the prices of goods and services from one period to the other. To measure the percentage change in the general level of prices, economists use the GDP deflator method or the Consumer Price Index (CPI) method. It is important to note that as the general level of prices rise, the purchasing power – or value – of money diminishes, and as the general level of prices decline, the value or purchasing power of money rises.

When an economy is going through recessionary or inflationary periods, two key policy prescriptions are used to deal with either problem are Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy. Fiscal Policy is often initiated by the executive branch of government and approved by the legislative branch of government. The main tools of Fiscal Policy are Taxes and Government Spending. Monetary Policy, on the other hand, is conducted by the Federal Reserve Board. The main tools of Monetary Policy are Required Reserve Ratio, Discount Rate, and Open Market Operation.

A recessionary gap (see Figure 1) occurs when the full employment equilibrium in an economy falls short of potential GDP.

Below full employment macroeconomic equilibrium graph with price level on y-axis and real GDP on x-axis

Figure 1: Below Full Employment Macroeconomic Equilibrium. Reprinted from Bade & Parkin (2018, p. 545).

Activity Instructions For this assignment, complete the following:

1. If you were an economic advisor to both the President and the Chair of the Federal Reserve Board, what Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy recommendations would you make to deal with a recession?

2. In the literature on Health Economics, there is a significant amount of research on the impact of the Great Recession (2008-2009) on the nursing profession. If you were the Health Policy Advisor to the President, what specific recommendations would you make to the President to minimize the effects of recessions on the nursing profession?

3. In the implementation of Fiscal and Monetary Policies, discuss the limitations of these policies and explain how the limitations are likely to affect the effectiveness of your recommendations.

Note: In making the recommendations, provide clear and concise channels of transmission of the policy from its implementation to its effect on Aggregate Demand or Aggregate Supply. Providing channels of transmission shows the ripple effect of an event on one or more variables in the process of achieving an ultimate Macroeconomic objective.

Example Sample Question: What is the effect of an increase in U.S. Exports?

Sample Answer: An increase in U.S exports will increase Business Investments (I) and Household Consumption (C). The increases in consumer spending and Business Investments will increase Aggregate Demand (AD) which will shift the AD curve to the right. The rightward shift in the AD curve, assuming the Aggregate Supply curve does not shift, will cause an increase in the general level of prices and an increase in real GDP.

Before you answer the question, identify the four phases of the Business Cycle and indicate which of the phase is associated with a recession.

Writing Requirements (APA format)

· Length: 3-5 pages (not including title page or references page)

· 1-inch margins

· Double spaced

· 12-point Times New Roman font

· Title page

· References page (minimum of 4 scholarly sources)

Reference

NBER. (2008, January 7). The NBER’s recession dating procedure. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/cycles/jan2003.html

 

Rubric

Written Analysis Grading Rubric – 135 pts

Written Analysis Grading Rubric – 135 pts
Criteria Ratings Pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Length
5.0 pts

Outstanding

Meets length requirement

0.0 pts

No Effort

Does not meet length requirement

5.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Content
20.0 pts

Outstanding

Addresses all aspects of the assignment.

17.0 pts

Above Average

Addresses most aspects of the assignment.

15.0 pts

Average

Addresses some aspects of the assignment.

12.0 pts

Below Average

Addresses few aspects of the assignment.

0.0 pts

No Effort

20.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Analysis & Support
50.0 pts

Outstanding

Throughout the whole work, the writing shows depth of critical thought; leverages course materials and outside resources to support assertions; supports claims with detailed and persuasive examples.

42.5 pts

Above Average

Throughout most of the work, the writing shows depth of critical thought; leverages course materials and outside resources to support assertions; supports claims with detailed and persuasive examples.

37.5 pts

Average

Throughout some of the work, the writing shows depth of critical thought; leverages course materials and outside resources to support assertions; supports claims with detailed and persuasive examples.

30.0 pts

Below Average

Throughout little of the work, the writing shows depth of critical thought; leverages course materials and outside resources to support assertions; supports claims with detailed and persuasive examples.

0.0 pts

No Effort

50.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Organization
30.0 pts

Outstanding

Ideas are logically organized, including inviting introduction (with a thesis statement) and a satisfactory conclusion, that come together in complete concepts.

25.5 pts

Above Average

Ideas are well organized, including inviting introduction (with a thesis statement) and a satisfactory conclusion, with complete concepts.

22.5 pts

Average

Organization and concepts need some restructuring.

18.0 pts

Below Average

Organization and concepts are difficult to follow and incomplete.

0.0 pts

No Effort

30.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Writing
20.0 pts

Outstanding

Throughout the whole work, the writing actively engages with the topic; is free of major errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation; demonstrates strong word choice and sentence variety.

17.0 pts

Above Average

Throughout most of the work, the writing actively engages with the topic; is free of major errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation; demonstrates strong word choice and sentence variety.

15.0 pts

Average

Throughout some of the work, the writing actively engages with the topic; is free of major errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation; demonstrates strong word choice and sentence variety.

12.0 pts

Below Average

Throughout little of the work, the writing actively engages with the topic; is free of major errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation; demonstrates strong word choice and sentence variety.

0.0 pts

No Effort

20.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome APA: Citation and Reference Formatting
10.0 pts

Outstanding

Throughout the whole work, in-text references are formatted using APA style; references page/slide includes complete bibliographic information for sources using APA style; format (margins, spacing font size) adheres to APA style.

8.5 pts

Above Average

Throughout most of the work, in-text references are formatted using APA style; references page/slide includes complete bibliographic information for sources using APA style; format (margins, spacing font size) adheres to APA style.

7.5 pts

Average

Throughout some of the work, in-text references are formatted using APA style; references page/slide includes complete bibliographic information for sources using APA style; format (margins, spacing font size) adheres to APA style.

6.0 pts

Below Average

Throughout little of the work, in-text references are formatted using APA style; references page/slide includes complete bibliographic information for sources using APA style; format (margins, spacing font size) adheres to APA style.

0.0 pts

No Effort

10.0 pts
Total Points: 135.0

The Basics of DM Processes

HCA 574
Decision Making in Healthcare

Reading #1

The Basics of DM Processes

Module 1: October 18-28, 2018

*

Important Questions

How are decisions made in HC organizations?

What are the useful DM models?

Which DM model should I apply?

How can the DM process be managed?

How do consumers (patients) bear the burden of choice?

What is the influence of technology, culture, and ethics on DM?

How do different viewpoints on DM such as those of patients, providers or health executives consider important issues such as cost, quality and access in the DM process?

*

*

How are Decisions Made in HC Organizations?

DECISION MAKING–Defined as:

The process of choosing a course of action for dealing with a problem or an opportunity.

Or

The process through which alternatives are selected and then managed through implementation to achieve healthcare objectives.

What is your definition of DM? Why?

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How are Decisions Made?

STEPS IN SYSTEMATIC DM

Recognize and define the problem or opportunity.

Identify and analyze alternative courses of action, and estimate their effects on the problem or opportunity.

Choose a preferred course of action.

Implement the preferred course of action.

Evaluate the results and follow up as necessary.

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How are Decisions Made?

The systematic decision-making process may not be followed where substantial change occurs and many new technologies prevail.

New decision techniques may yield superior performance in certain situations.

Ethical consequences of decision making must be considered.

All applicable in health care? Why, Why Not?

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So DM is Important …

  • To come to a decision, a series of events take place

Resources: Have to be in place

Processes: Have to be determined

DM: Has to be executed

Strategy: Has to be in place

Implementation: Can it work in all situations?

Returns: What are patient/organizational benefits?

  • DM has to be part of strategic position for healthcare organizations

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How are Decisions Made?

DECISION ENVIRONMENTS INCLUDE:

Certain environments.

Risk environments.

Uncertain environments.

What’s the most dominant environment in health care? Why?

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How are Decisions Made?

CERTAIN ENVIRONMENTS

Exist when information is sufficient to predict the results of each alternative in advance of implementation.

Certainty is the ideal problem solving and decision making environment.

Examples in health care??

Whose perspective should take precedence in this environment? Why?

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How are Decisions Made?

RISK ENVIRONMENTS

Exist when decision makers lack complete certainty regarding the outcomes of various courses of action, but they can assign probabilities of occurrence.

Probabilities can be assigned through objective statistical procedures or personal intuition.

Give two examples in health care.

Whose perspective should take precedence in this environment? Why?

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How are Decisions Made?

UNCERTAIN EVIRONMENTS

Exist when there is so little information that one cannot even assign probabilities to various alternatives and possible outcomes.

Uncertainty forces decision makers to rely on individual and group creativity to succeed in problem solving.

Examples in health care??

Whose perspective should take precedence in this environment? Why?

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Uncertain Environments …2

Also characterized by rapidly changing:

External conditions.

Information technology requirements.

Personnel influencing problem and choice definitions.

These rapid changes are also called organized anarchy.

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How are Decisions Made?

TYPES OF DECISIONS

Planned Decisions

Involve routine problems that arise regularly and can be addressed through standard responses.

Non-planned Decisions.

Involve abnormal problems that require solutions specifically tailored to the situation at hand

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Decision Making Models

Classical Decision Theory (CDT)

Views the decision maker as acting in a world of complete certainty.

Behavioral Decision Theory (BDT)

Accepts a world with bounded rationality and views the decision maker as acting only in terms of what he/she perceives about a given situation.

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CDT vs. BDT

CDT

The classical decision maker:

Faces a clearly defined problem.

Knows all possible action alternatives and their consequences.

Chooses the optimum alternative.

Is often used as a model of how managers should make decisions.

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CDT vs. BDT …2

BDT

Recognizes that human beings operate with:

Cognitive limitations.

Bounded rationality.

The behavioral decision maker:

Faces a problem that is not clearly defined.

Has limited knowledge of possible action alternatives and their consequences.

Chooses a satisfactory alternative.

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CDT vs. BDT …3

CDT

May not fit well in a chaotic world.

Can be used toward the bottom of many firms, even most high-tech firms.

BDT

Fits with a chaotic world of uncertain conditions and limited information.

Encourages satisficing decision making.

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Decision Making Models

The Garbage Can Model (GCM)

A model of decision making that views problems, solutions, participants, and choice situations as mixed together in the “garbage can” of the organization.

In stable settings, behavioral decision theory may be more appropriate.

In dynamic settings, the garbage model may be more appropriate.

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Decision Making Models

Implications of GCM

Choice making and implementation may be done by different individuals.

Because of interpretation, there is a risk that the actual implementation does not exactly match the choice.

Many problems go unsolved.

Think of an example in the US HC System which may represent a problem that has never been solved due to poor DM/poor choices.

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Decision Making Models: A.D.P.I.E.

  • The Assessment, Diagnosis, Planning, Implementation Evaluation (ADPIE) Model

Assessment

Evaluate

Diagnose

Planning

Implementation

On-going Assessment

On-going Diagnosis

On-going Planning

On-going Implementation

On-going Evaluation

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This model was developed as an on-going evaluation tool. The strategic plan is an ongoing living process. As soon as the organization initiates the assessment process and, therefore, determines the needs of the organization (diagnosis), it is time to move on to the planning phase where the stake holders determine (plan) the strategies to meet the needs of fixing or addressing the problems within the organization (diagnosis). After this phase is completed, it is time to put into action the plans (implement) determined by the organization’s stake holders. It is then imperative to see if the organization has met the goals of the plans and programs that were implemented (evaluate). Upon finishing the evaluation and discovering the success and failures of the implemented plans, (take note already a new organization is emerging), it is time to begin assessing the new organization with it’s new strengths and weaknesses that are a net result of implementing the initial ADPIE process. To do this effectively, it is necessary to initiate the ADPIE process again. At the end of this next ADPIE process, the result will again be a new organization with its new strengths and weaknesses that are a net result of implementing the second ADPIE process. ADPIE then starts again, and so on and so on…. This process is ongoing through out the life of the organization. This helps to prevent inertia, stagnation, and non-growth which is inherent in many organizations who have not put in place an on-going evaluation processes to use as a metric for the on-going outcomes measurements needed for the on-going success of the organization.

 

ADPIE …2

  • Ongoing DM/Evaluation tool
  • Phase by phase through A.D.P.I.E
  • State the cycle after completing the initial ADPIE
  • Ongoing throughout the life of HC organization

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Shared Decision Making Model

  • SDM MODEL

Collaborative model—providers & patients/family

Applies the SHARE Approach (AHRQ)

Applies clinical evidence

Applies the principle of patient centeredness

What are the likely challenges in SDM?

Where/What is the place/role of health executive in SDM?

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E.T.H.I.C.A.L. Model

  • Applied in Ethical DM

Examine the ethical dilemma

Thoroughly comprehend the possible alternatives

Hypothesize ethical arguments

Investigate, compare, and evaluate the arguments for each alternative

Choose the alternative you would recommend

Act on your chosen alternative

Look at the ethical dilemma and examine the outcomes while reflecting on the ethical decision

  • Use to arrive at rational and justifiable decisions

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Intuitive DM Model

  • How the Intuitive Model Works

Consciously recalling gained knowledge

Based on formal/informal education and experience

Inexperienced: Take time to make decisions—step by step from assessment to implementation

Experienced: “Leap” from information gathering to implementation. Good idea?

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DM Realities

Decision makers face complex choice processes.

DM information may not be available

Bounded rationality and cognitive limitations affect the way DM parties define problems, identify alternatives, and choose preferred solutions

Most DM goes beyond step-by-step rational choice

Most DM falls between the highly rational and the highly chaotic

Decisions must be made under risk and uncertainty

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DM realities …2

Decisions must be made to solve non-routine issues

Decisions must be made under time pressures

Decisions must be made under information limitations

Decisions should be ethical

So what’s your pick as the best DM Model in health care environment? Why?

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How to Manage a DM Process

CHOOSING PROBLEMS TO ADDRESS

Ask and answer the following questions:

Is the problem easy to deal with?

Might the problem resolve itself?

Is this my decision to make?

Is this a solvable problem within the context of the organization?

Apply to a specific health care problem

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How to Manage a DM Process …2

Reasons for DM failure

Decision makers tend to copy others’ choices and apply them in their situation

Decision makers tend to emphasize problems and solutions rather than successful implementation

Decision makers use participation too infrequently

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How to Manage a DM Process …3

WHO SHOULD PARTICIPATE IN DM?

Authoritative Decisions.

Made by authority without involving other parties and by using information on hand

Consultative Decisions

Made by one individual after seeking input from others

Group Decisions

Made by all affected/concerned parties collectively

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Influence of Culture, Technology and Ethics on DM

Information technology and DM

Cultural factors and DM

US culture stresses decisiveness, speed, and the individual selection of alternatives.

Other cultures place less emphasis on individual choice than on developing implementations that work.

Ethical issues and DM

Ethical dilemmas: ethical/legal/right/beneficial decisions?

Watch the movie “John Q” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_l693tZkCio

Discuss the importance of cultural, technological and ethical factors in DM processes. Use views from your group perspective

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This model was developed as an on-going evaluation tool. The strategic plan is an ongoing living process. As soon as the organization initiates the assessment process and, therefore, determines the needs of the organization (diagnosis), it is time to move on to the planning phase where the stake holders determine (plan) the strategies to meet the needs of fixing or addressing the problems within the organization (diagnosis). After this phase is completed, it is time to put into action the plans (implement) determined by the organization’s stake holders. It is then imperative to see if the organization has met the goals of the plans and programs that were implemented (evaluate). Upon finishing the evaluation and discovering the success and failures of the implemented plans, (take note already a new organization is emerging), it is time to begin assessing the new organization with it’s new strengths and weaknesses that are a net result of implementing the initial ADPIE process. To do this effectively, it is necessary to initiate the ADPIE process again. At the end of this next ADPIE process, the result will again be a new organization with its new strengths and weaknesses that are a net result of implementing the second ADPIE process. ADPIE then starts again, and so on and so on…. This process is ongoing through out the life of the organization. This helps to prevent inertia, stagnation, and non-growth which is inherent in many organizations who have not put in place an on-going evaluation processes to use as a metric for the on-going outcomes measurements needed for the on-going success of the organization.

 

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Grading Rubric: Epidemiology Paper: Cholera

Content Possible Points Student’s Score
Abstract: 400- 500words, clearly summarizes written paper and states purpose. 10
Introduction: Identifies and describes disease entity, health issue, or disease outbreak; States relevance to community/global health. 20
Background: Provides epidemiological statistics, including incidence, prevalence, mortality, morbidity, etc. 20
Includes clinical manifestations and treatment; risk factors; screening and surveillance methods; associated political and ethical issues. 20
Conclusion/Summary: Clear and concise. 10
Format
Written paper flows well; Utilizes proper grammar and sentence structure; Typed, double-spaced, 12 point Times New Roman font; Adheres to APA format throughout. 5
Includes a minimum of 2 tables or graphs, illustrating epidemiological data or trends. 10
References
Cites minimum of 8 references, using APA format. 5
Possible Points: 100 Student’s Score: _____________

Comments:

cinema( need to watch the Movie: Cabin in the woods

We often think about genre in terms of expected conventions and narrative patterns. But we can also think about genre with respect to the feelings certain films elicit. The stories told through Horror films often explore deeply entrenched fears. Fears of the unknown. Fear of the dark. The fear of human frailty and failure. Horror films even delve deeply into the fear of oneself through corruption narratives. Think of how many Horror films you may have come across where the protagonist must deal with the challenge of becoming the very monster they fear by way of a vampire’s bite, a werewolf’s scratch, or some form of ghostly or demonic possession. In recent years infection, whether it be an alien virus or a newly discovered species of fungi, has also become a common theme in Horror. These are all narrative strategies for exploring the enemy within.

“Horror films hinge upon a predictable reaction to visual, aural, and narrative elements; we know we’re watching a horror film because we recognize its effect on us.” (Lewis, 2014)

Similar to Film Noir, Horror often employs low key lighting to create lots of shadows in the frame. Pockets of darkness throughout remind the viewer of all they can’t see and all they don’t know. Perhaps all the viewer does know is that something may jump out of those shadows at any time. Horror is a genre which seeks to keep the viewer on the edge of fear.

Historical Context

Between 1930 and 1950 Universal Studios gave the public some of its most enduring versions of Frankenstein’s monster, the Wolfman, Dracula, and the Mummy. The Universal versions of the characters became iconic not just due to the acting and high production values of the films. Universal had also chosen to make what was once considered only monstrous, something which might evoke sympathy in the viewer.

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SOURCE: C.S. DeBose 2017, CC BY

“Universal reconfigured the strict moral balance between human protagonist and eerie antagonists by radically redrawing the boundaries between good and evil and mortal and monster. These creatures do sometimes behave just as appallingly as their mum predecessors, but Universal monsters are also many times more appealing than the creatures of the silents. Even if we sometimes wish they were dead, we oftentimes end up sympathizing with these abnormal beasts and their miserable plight.” (Crane, 2012)

Crane goes on to discuss what this shift in the portrayal of monsters means for the viewer. A monster is monstrous without reason. It is by virtue of their monstrosity that we know they are not human. Therefore, it is by virtue of our humanity that we know we are not monsters. Once we begin to create monsters that seem to have reasons for why they are monstrous, we are forced to reconsider our own humanity. Because maybe we understand why the monster behaves as he does and maybe we might have reacted in the same way. “A monster who loathes his own life and contemplates existence with a downcast eye exhibits troubling parallels with depressed humans…Anytime that monsters are created anew, humans are also remade (Crane, 2012)

A Cabin in the Woods

Like all genres, Horror has a number of sub-genres. One such sub-genre is the collection of films which take place in a cabin in the woods. In 2011 Joss Whedon and Drew Goddard wrote and directed a film entitled The Cabin In the Woods. The film was a nod to the genre and did a particularly good job of exploring the visual and narrative conventions we’ve come to expect from a Horror film.

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SOURCE: Movie poster for Frankenstein

The Cabin in the Woods is a metatextual narrative. A metatextual narrative is one which makes commentary on another text by using itself as the space for discourse (intertextual). In other words, The Cabin in the Woods is a Horror movie which makes commentary on Horror movies. It lists and illustrates different Horror villains and archetypes.

As the film gets underway the first character our ensemble cast will meet is the “soothsayer.” This is a classic role in Horror films wherein a group of teens (or young adults) come across an old man or old woman who warns them to turn back. This warning is usually ignored and on they continue to their demise.

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SOURCE: Promotional poster for the film, The Cabin in the Woods. Fair Use

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SOURCE: Still frame from The Cabin In The Woods, Fair Use

Our cast of characters usually consists of archetypes. An archetype is a very typical, often used character. In Horror we often see the “jock”, the “nice guy”, the “stoner”/drinker, the “cheerleader”(promiscuous girl), the “token minority”, and “the virgin” (usually female). The virgin is usually the last character left alive, or she is the final death.

The Cabin in the Woods adheres to these archetypes perfectly while also adding its own twist in an effort to comment on these oft used archetypes. Archetype in Cinema is often used as a kind of shorthand. Instead of giving the viewer a great deal of background information about each character, filmmakers instead will present an archetype to clarify the different roles in an ensemble cast. Archetypes can be useful, but they can also be used to perpetuate stereotypes.

Final Girl

Another film which hints at a metatextual narrative is the recently produced Final Girl. Written by Adam Prince, the 2015 film made comment on the notion of the virgin archetype which is also known as “the last girl.”

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SOURCE: A still image from the film, The Cabin in the Woods. Fair Use

The overall story follows Veronica, a young woman raised and trained for combat. By strange coincidence she encounters a group of young men who enjoy taking women into the woods and killing them. Because she is their type, they plan to do the same to her. Instead of turning out to be “the virgin,” she is in fact more like an angel of death. Each young man dies receiving his comeuppance at the hands of Veronica.

Films like the Final Girl have become more common as filmmakers explore and explode notions of patriarchy and expectations of women being the weaker sex. Cinema conventions have become expected but they can always be changed by a new generation of filmmakers willing to use archetype in a new way.

As the world changes so too do our definitions of what is horrible and horrifying. Now we look less toward the black lagoon or outer space and instead look toward the homes of our neighbors for the monsters we seek. We find them in our schools or in our office spaces.

“After Halloween, contemporary horror films have been most effective when they are based within instantly recognizable locales during simple celebrations that once had signified the welcome renewal of shared bonds.” (Crane, 2012)

Horror films allow us to witness and face the things we fear most. They also allow us to face fears we didn’t know we had. With their dark mise en scene and low-key lighting they keep viewers on the edge of fear.

Works Cited Crane, J. L. (2012). Terror and Everyday Life: Singular Moments in the History of Horror

Film. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Lewis, J. (2014). Essential Cinema: An Introduction to FIlm Analysis. Boston: Wadsworth.

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